THE CACTUS DAHLIA
Its Popularity and
Culture for Exhibition
Cactus Dahlias for
Cactus Dahlias for
List of Cactus
varieties in 1904
ITS POPULARITY AND RAPID DEVELOPMENT.
BY P. W. TULLOCH.
THE rapid development of the Cactus Dahlia, from the flat-petalled flower of ten
years ago to its highly refined descendant of the present day, borne on
wire-like stems, with narrow and gracefully incurved florets of the richest and
most varied colours and shades, is one of the most remarkable feats of modern
So rapid has the advance been during the latter part of this period, that at the
present time it is no exaggeration to say that only a small part of the
flower-loving public has been able to keep pace with it, and consequently there
is widespread ignorance of the high state of perfection that has been attained
by the Cactus Dahlia which, -whether grown for decoration or for exhibition, is
the amateur's garden flower par excellence.
In past years there must have been many and great disappointments amongst
admirers of the Dahlia, who, after visiting the leading shows, and seeing the
marvellous specimens of the "Show" and "Fancy" type set up by the leading
professional growers, have attempted to do likewise, only to find to their
chagrin how difficult it is for the ordinary, inexperienced amateur, with
business or other matters to occupy most of his time, to succeed in producing
these "works of art," as shown by the leading growers. But with the Cactus
Dahlia his experience will be quite different, and I have no hesitation in
saying that the amateur who reads and puts into practice the directions given in
the articles on culture and treatment "will have no difficulty, "when the
show-day comes round, in setting up a stand of blooms that will be in every
respect the equal of those exhibited by the leading nurserymen. Again, his
plants "will not need to be " timed " for the few weeks covering the period of
the leading exhibitions, as is necessary in the case of the show and fancy
varieties. Hence, instead of having no blooms prior to that period, and but few
left to come on later, from his Cactus plants he will have a steady succession
of blooms of good quality, from the commencement of the season in July up to the
end of October.
The different varieties will be found to vary very considerably as regards their
blooming capabilities. If the plants are treated solely to produce show-blooms
of the largest possible size, combined with perfect form and refinement, from 30
to 60 blooms per plant may be obtained during the season. If, on the other hand,
the plants are grown for garden decoration or cut blooms of fair size, from 100
to 200 per plant will be obtained with a little judicious thinning and
disbudding. The grower whose purpose is the latter will find himself well repaid
by adopting this course, for if the plants are left to grow naturally, the
number of blooms will be little in excess of those stated, whilst the flowers
themselves will be of inferior quality, and the young shoots and blooms will be
subject to attacks from snails, slugs, caterpillars, and earwigs to a greater
extent than if the practice of thinning be resorted to.
As a continuous bloomer and producer of large, showy, graceful, and highly
decorative flowers for a period of from three to four months, the Cactus Dahlia
has certainly no equal, and such long-established favourites as the rose,
carnation, and chrysanthemum make but a sorry comparison with it in this
respect; the rose, in several of its types, is certainly a long and continuous
bloomer, but what is the proportion of the deformed blooms to the perfect ones,
and how long do the latter retain their perfect form?
While a wet and comparatively sunless summer means ruin to the flowers of most
out-of-door plants, the Dahlia will not be one whit the worse for it. Whether
the season be wet or dry, hot or sunless, the Dahlia buds will continue to
develop, and will expand into perfect flowers whatever the weather conditions
may be. This is no small advantage, as the experience of the last two summers
To the usual criticism that the Dahlia is scentless, I would reply that so are a
large proportion of our finest and most popular roses, so are all the choicest
and most handsome carnations and picotees, while the chrysanthemum can hardly be
described as a sweet-scented flower.
All three are subject to several forms of disease, either one of which may ruin
a whole season's crop, and make a year's work and attention fruitless, while
with the rose and carnation a hard winter or an inclement spring means incessant
anxiety to the grower, and a heavy casualty list from death and disease, do what
he will to prevent it.
The Dahlia is subject to no disease of any kind, and healthy plants throughout
the flowering" season are a certain result of care and attention during the
spring, while throughout the w inter the roots can be safely stored away, the
grower resting in peace and devoting his attention to the preparation of his
Dahlia beds, which, left vacant by the removal of the tubers in November, lie is
enabled to work and manipulate with a freedom which is impossible where roses or
other permanent plants are grown.
The Dahlia is generally spoken of as a bad laster when cut. It certainly is so
in the greatest, heat of summer, but not to a greater extent than is the case
with most other flowers. I make it a practice to cut my blooms in the morning
before breakfast, place them in heavy stone vases and carry them down to the
cellar, where they remain until the evening, when I arrange them for the table.
Before retiring to bed, I carry them down again as they are, on large trays,
where they remain until the following evening, and so on.
The different varieties vary enormously as keepers, but the result of this
treatment is that for the first two evenings the blooms are as perfect as when
first cut, while they are good to" fair from the third to the fifth evening,
according to the variety. It is necessary that the cellar should be dark, as by
cutting the blooms in the early morning, and keeping them in darkness, the
tendency of the florets to close in towards evening (thus spoiling the
appearance of the flower) is defeated.
That the Cactus Dahlia is not more generally or more extensively grown is due
mainly to its almost mushroom-like advance from tho condition of a
coarse-petalled flower, to the state of perfection in which it is seen to-day,
but when duo allowance is made for this it is astonishing to find how few people
know what a Cactus Dahlia is. My experience is that almost all my friends who
see my blooms for the first time remark, '' How do you manage to get your
chrysanthemums so early?" And then when I explain they ask, "Do you grow these
flowers under glass?"
During the last few years I have succeeded in inducing many of my
non-Dahlia-growing friends to grow the Cactus Dahlia, and the result has been
without an exception, that one year's experience has converted them to an
attitude of more or less intense enthusiasm. in its culture, not only on account
of the beauty of its flowers, but also the great interest engendered by its
rapidity of growth and development, and the splendid results obtained in
proportion to the labour given.
At the same time the inexperienced grower must understand that to ensure success
he must apply the right treatment. In the various articles contributed by
several of the leading growers and raisers he will find all the information
necessary to make that success certain, and if he will supplement the
instructions there given by a little of that care and forethought which is born
naturally of the true love of these glorious flowers, lie will reap such a
reward during the period from midsummer until the coming of the first severe
frost, as never before fell to the lot of any gardener.
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CULTURE OF THE CACTUS DAHLIA FOR EXHIBITION.
BY J. STREDWICK.
An enquirer on the subject of this article would probably ask in the first
place, "What kind of soil is suitable for growing -Dahlias?" In reply, I would
say that I have never found any reasonable soil upon which I could not grow a
good Cactus Dahlia bloom fit for exhibition. We begin operations as soon in the
New Year as the weather is favourable, by turning all our ground up as roughly,
and as deeply as possible, in order that the frost, the best cultivator of any
soil, may penetrate to a great depth. We use a new tool for this purpose every
year. Early in March we give a fair coating of stable manure, not too rotten,
and again dig the ground to its full depth: about this time we usually get
frosty nights, so that all the clod smashing necessary is performed by natural
agency; we then turn the soil again three or four times before planting out
time, early in June. If this process be followed, the soil, whatever its
composition, should be in first-rate condition by that time.
The soil having been properly prepared we can get ready for the operation of
planting out. Stretch a line in the direction of your first row of plants about
two feet from the edge of the path, and put in small sticks at intervals of 4
feet to mark the positions that the plants will occupy. Around the points so
marked, dig out evenly, holes some 15 inches in diameter, and a good spit deep.
Fill the holes half full of good and fairly rotten stable manure, with about as
much soot as a 60-pot will contain, and the same quantity of well-slaked
quicklime. Next widen the diameter of the hole by digging in and thoroughly
mixing the surrounding soil with the manure, etc. Fill in with the soil
originally excavated, and press it all down evenly. The first row is now ready,
and the others may be prepared in the same way, leaving 5 feet between the rows.
The growth of the young plants up to planting out time is fully described in
another article, so we may proceed directly to the latter operation. Taking a
trowel, dig out a hole large enough to take the ball, with the soil as it leaves
the pot, and having replaced the soil, press down firmly. The plants, which at
the time of planting out ought to be about a foot high, should be at once
secured to a strong central stake, the height of which is not less than 4 to 5
feet above the ground. If the weather be favourable, the plants will soon begin
to show signs of growth, and perhaps buds. The latter must be at once pinched
out, and if the plants be of sufficient height, one or two joints below must be
removed at the same time. All the strength will thus be thrown into the bottom
laterals, which will soon require to be looped up to the stake to protect them
from the wind. It is now advisable to put to each plant three more stakes
similar to the first, the three forming a triangle around the plant. Around the
stakes put some stout yarn, to which, when of sufficient length, the branches
may be tied evenly all round the centre. In the case of thick, bushy plants,
thin out the weakest branches—not leaving more than six to each plant.
Unless the weather is very dry, the plants will not require watering at first,
but in this matter common sense must be exercised, but on no account over water
a plant, when just planted out, or the young roots will be rotted and recovery
will be slow. At the same time take care that your plants are not dry before
they are knocked out of their pots, or you will find it difficult to wet the
ball after, without excessive watering. On the other hand, do not water your
plants, and then immediately turn them out, which is likewise a bad practice.
If exhibiting is the one object in view, it is more than likely that the
earliest buds will be too early for the shows, except in late districts. If it
be desired that the plants should have all the vigour possible, at the most
important time, take out the leading bud in each shoot. But remember that from
the time that a tiny bud is seen, a month must elapse before it can develop into
a perfect flower. Do not make a mistake, and have half-developed flowers on the
A word should be added on disbudding. As soon as it has been decided to let the
plants continue to bear blooms, take out all the side shoots and buds, except
the centre bud, for three or four joints downwards, leaving the lower laterals
to produce future blooms. We never take off any of the lower shoots, which, as
the season advances, generally bear the finest and strongest flowers.
Watering and feeding are other important points, upon which it is very difficult
to advise, because seasons and climates differ so much. However, the Cactus
Dahlia is a water-loving plant, and it is therefore better to give freely than
not enough. As the plants increase in height, they require great care to keep
them secure from the wind. A grower may think his plants safe, but admit they
are rather high above the last yarn put round, and a bit loose, but he will
attend to it to-morrow. But sometimes to-morrow is too late, and before
to-morrow's dawn, a gale has practically ruined the whole year's work and hope.
Always remember, "A stitch in time saves nine." Constantly give a tie here and
there, and safety is assured.
Again, as the plants advance, and begin to bear a good number of blooms, they
will want. something more than clean water. It is an excellent plan to get, say,
a forty-gallon cask, and put into it a bag, containing good rotted stable
manure, or sheep manure, keeping the cask filled with water, and never watering
from a water-main or pump direct, the water from which is always much colder
than the open air. Renew the manure from time to time, using another kind, if
Mulching is often an important matter. It is a great advantage to us, in dry
weather, but whether it is of value in all climates is open to question, because
the sun's rays are thereby prevented from penetrating the soil to a very great
extent. We do it here in dry seasons as soon as the three stakes are put out,
placing a layer of rough stable manure over the ground to a depth of two inches.
Artificial manures, which are many and varied, are often of value in the hands
of those who know how to use them, and sometimes work wonders at the critical
moment. But I should advise beginners to use them with the greatest caution,
never allowing themselves to be persuaded that animal manures can be entirely
dispensed with. Never use artificial manures except as a stimulant to urge your
plants on or to gain some particular object; even then unless great care be
exercised the result will be ruin.
Shading, if properly carried out, is of great importance in all weathers. In
very bad weather we cannot get perfect flowers without affording some
protection. But it must not be forgotten that the blooms must always be tied
firmly to the stake so that they are in the centre of the shade, and not too
close to it, but so placed that a current of air can pass through. Otherwise,
the shade will do more harm than good at times when the sun is hot.
As to the shade itself; we make our own from fine canvas or calico. The shade is
conical in shape, about 12 inches in height and of the same diameter at its
base, round which a wire runs. A stake 4 or 5 feet in height is chosen, and
pushed into the ground to a depth of about 9 inches, the shade being fixed
firmly to the stake by means of wire, at a sufficient height to cover the bloom.
At this point I would like to say, for the benefit of amateurs who wish to
exhibit, that it is foolish to grow a large number of varieties, and only one or
two plants of each. Those who do this will often find they are overburdened with
work, and, when blooms are wanted for competition, that they have not enough
blooms of some varieties; suppose, for example, that the desired class is one of
nine varieties, three in a bunch; it will be found that more that one good bloom
from each plant on a given day can seldom be depended on.
Rather obtain a selection of good, reliable sorts, in number according to the
classes you intend to compete in, with a surplus of two or three, and not less
than three plants of each variety; you may then, with work. and care, succeed in
reaching the top of your section.
In conclusion I would say that it is of the utmost importance to become
accustomed to methods of staging before the show day arrives. In this, as in
other things, perfection is only attained by those who practise. Careless
staging is the great fault of the present generation of amateurs. In many cases
prizes are lost by the unskilful way in which the wiring and setting up has been
done, the exhibitor whose flowers are intrinsically inferior, having, by the
manner in -which. he has displayed them, made them appear to be the best.
Blooms, when staged, sometimes look as if they had been brought in the
exhibitor's pocket, whereas, with proper care, every floret can be preserved and
the flower will look as fresh and perfect as when on the plant. There are two
factors in the exhibitor's success, the first, the actual growing; and the
second, by no means of secondary importance, the staging. " All that other
people do, why, with patience, should not you?"
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EXHIBITING THE CACTUS DAHLIA.
BY J. BURRELL.
Time for Cutting the Blooms.—The best time for this operation will greatly
depend on the atmospheric conditions at the time, and whether the exhibitor
stages largely- or only in a small way. Large exhibits take a considerable time
to arrange and generally the cutting of the blooms must be done the day previous
to the show, in order to give sufficient time to arrange to the best-advantage.
Should the weather be hot and sunny at the time, I prefer cutting very early in
the morning, and like to have all the flowers cut and placed in water in some
cool shed before the heat causes the flowers to flag and droop, but care should
be taken not to shut the flowers up in close boxes, when wet with dew. If in
this condition they should be allowed to dry slowly in the open shed or room,
out of the reach of hot winds. Flowers shut up in close boxes when wet
frequently become bleached and discoloured, and as a rule quickly shed their
florets. If the weather is fortunately cool the day previous to the exhibition,
the cutting may be done at leisure any time during the day, the later the
better, if sufficient time for arranging and packing be allowed. When cutting,
the stalks, should be denuded of all foliage, otherwise evaporation of moisture
is so rapid that the flowers quickly shrivel and lose their freshness. The small
exhibitor, especially when exhibiting near home, will generally be able to cut
his flowers on the morning of the show, and thus be enabled to stage them in
their fullest beauty and freshness.
Modes of Exhibiting.—As the decorative, or what is sometimes called the
artistic, arrangement of the flowers, is treated on in another place, it is only
necessary for me to refer to what I will term the point of view of the
floriculturist or connoisseur', that is, of the person who prefers to see the
blooms staged in such a manner that the good or bad points can easily be noted
in each individual bloom or variety. Two modes of attaining- this end are
commonly adopted, and it would be difficult to improve upon them.
The first and most effective is to place the flowers in pliable wire frames of a
triangular shape, made to hold three or six blooms of each variety.
When the flowers are nicely arranged and spread out to their fullest advantage,
so that they stand clear of each other, -with a little small Dahlia foliage
interspersed among the blooms, few-things, if any, in the way of cut flowers are
more effective than a good exhibit of Cactus Dahlias. The individual bundles
should be well-placed in. a box nicely surfaced with green moss, gradually
rising in height from front to back, so as to expose every flower to view, the
box being of such dimensions that the bunches are not crowded, but just stand
clear of each other.
The second way is to have classes for single blooms, and the best way to display
them is on the old-fashioned show-board, in use for the show Dahlia for
generations past. But the boards must be of larger dimensions for the Cactus
varieties, to allow of the tubes being placed about 6½ inches apart from centre
to centre. Classes for single blooms are to be commended for small growers, who,
owing to their limited number of plants, may have a difficulty in exhibiting in
the bunch classes, and in the larger classes they are interesting in frequently
allowing a larger number of distinct varieties and of novelties to be seen.
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THE CACTUS DAHLIA FOR GARDEN DECORATION.
BY J. T. WEST.
The initial stages of growth of Cactus Dahlias, whether for exhibition or
decoration, being the same, it will be needless for me to touch upon that part
of the subject. I will therefore proceed, without further introduction, to give
my views and experience of the Cactus Dahlia as a decorative plant. I am not
afraid to assert that, if given a fair chance, no other plant flowering at the
same time can rival it for decorative purposes. I am quite aware that complaints
on this score are constantly made, but they are due to ignorance on the part of
the grower, and not to any fault inherent in the plant itself. Complaint arises
because the wants and requirements of the plant are not known, or imperfectly
understood, many growers spoiling their chances of a fine display of flower by
over-manuring, over-thinning, over-crowding, or total neglect, the latter
mistake being perhaps the most frequent. The Dahlia is a great feeder, and wants
its proper share of the good things, like any other plant, (I say share, not
monopoly.) If this be given, and ordinary care and attention, bestowed, I think
very few complaints will be heard, for failure is the result either of a too
liberal provision for its wants, or of their total neglect.
We will suppose that the plants have been received from the nursery (if not home
grown) by the middle of May, in 3-inch pots; these, as soon as they are well
rooted round the sides of the pots, may be potted into 5-inch, or even larger
pots, according to the room at the disposal of the grower; placed in a frame and
kept growing, with plenty of air, they will by the end of May have become fine,
sturdy stuff, fit to plant anywhere and to do anything.
Where Dahlias are grown for cut flowers only, a piece of ground in the open, or
in the kitchen garden, is the best place. For decorative effect, in the garden a
border or beds, mixed or unmixed, may be chosen; but the treatment will be the
same in either case. Let us take the border: it is a wise plan to make up one's
mind how many plants can be accommodated some time before the planting is to be
done, so that the places can be made ready before other work in the garden
becomes too pressing; this will enable the work to be done more successfully,
and easily. The distance to be allowed between, each plant must be decided on,
according to the room at the disposal of the grower, but do not overcrowd, for a
few well-grown plants are more effective and produce more flowers than a larger
number of inferior ones. After marking out the positions of the plants, dig a
hole about a foot or more square and deep, then place in the bottom a good spit
of old rotten manure, filling in with soil, and mix the two well together, but
taking care that the manure does not come into contact with the roots. They will
require help from the manure later on, but too coarse a growth is not conducive
to profuse blooming. After the holes are filled in, put a strong stake in
position at once; it can be done more easily now than later m the season, and
will then be ready for supporting the young plants. About the end of May or the
first, week in June will be the time to plant out; if very cold and wet like the
season of 1903, no time is gained by being in a hurry. After planting, see that
a saucer-like depression is left around each plant, to prevent waste in
watering; also plant a lettuce by the side of each Dahlia, as tills will prove a
superior attraction to the slugs. As the growth of the plants proceeds it will
be necessary to remove some of the inner shoots, so that a good shapely plant
may be built up; leave the four lower shoots (the closer they are to the ground
the better), and remove those that come above the four lower shoots until the
first bud on the leading shoot appears; remove this bud and save the four
growing shoots that are immediately below it. The four upper and the four lower
growths will he sufficient to make a fine hush when tied to four side stakes,
which must he placed to support the side branches, and make them safe against
any ordinary wind that. may spring up. If the plant be well opened out, growth
becomes hardened by the air, light, and sun, and buds and flowers are produced:
while the method we often see practised, namely, to put. one stake to the plant,
and then tie it around -with string or raffia several times as the season
advances, results in a lot of sappy growth that cannot produce flowers, but
simply a mass of blind shoots which are a source of disappointment to the
grower, and produce a bad impression of the Cactus Dahlia as a decorative plant.
With the opening-out method I have suggested, very little removal of growths
will be necessary, but what is superfluous can be removed. Care should be taken
that all the stakes are long enough for each variety. The height can generally
be got from the catalogues.
Watering will be necessary occasionally, but let it be a good soaking, otherwise
the young roots will be attracted to the surface by the moisture, and will then
be burnt up or otherwise destroyed. Manure water, made from sheep or cow manure,
will be a great help to the plants when in full growth or bloom.
For decorative purposes, as distinguished from culture for exhibition, it will
not be necessary to thin out the buds and blooms; the grower who wants large
blooms must thin and disbud, but if the desire be mainly effect and blooms for
cutting purposes, no thinning is required. I have noticed that the less the
flowers are thinned the more erect they grow, and also that they have better
staying powers than flowers from plants which have been severely thinned. If
care is taken to prevent coarse pieces of growth, from coming up inside the
plant, crowding up its centre, and robbing it, no further attention will be
required, with the exception of tying, which must be continually looked after,
or the whole season's work may be totally ruined by the first summer or autumn
If these few hints are followed, I venture to think that those who have recently
taken up the culture of the Cactus Dahlia for decoration will be delighted at
its adaptability for that purpose.
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THE CACTUS DAHLIA FOR HOME DECORATION.
BY R. G. TRESEDER.
The Cactus Dahlia of to-day is a charming flower, -well adapted for decorative
purposes. One strong reason why it should be freely-grown is the cheap rate at
which a plant may be bought; furthermore, the tuber is practically everlasting,
and with anything like ordinary care will return abundance of bloom over a
longer period than the majority of flowering plants.
Amongst its chief charms are the marvellous variety and the almost indescribable
tints in the flowers, and their exquisite beauty of form, the florets in some
cases being straight, and in others, twisted, incurved, and fluted in every
One may gather flowers from July until the plants are cut down by frost in
October or November, as the case may be. For many years past the period of
flowering has extended into November. The flowers during these latter months,
change very much in character and hue, but for cutting they arc most useful and
welcome, as they withstand the wet and rough weather which we generally get in
the autumn. One point that must be urged in favour of the Cactus Dahlia for
cutting is the length and wiry nature of the stem and the erect habit of the
We occasionally hear of weak flower stems, but can we wonder that the stem is
weak when, from an exhibitor's point of view, a large, refined flower is
desired, a flower so huge that to expect the stem to support it in an erect
position, without some artificial support, is to make an unreasonable demand
upon its powers. But for decorative purposes smaller blooms, such as the stem
can carry erect, are far preferable. In order to obtain them, do not thin out
any growths on your plant, but disbud each shoot, leaving only a few eyes at the
base to form successive flowering shoots.
I think that before many years are over, we shall have another most useful
section, the Pompon Cactus, which will prove invaluable for decorative purposes.
There are already some excellent varieties in this section, such as Coronation,
bright scarlet, Mary, small flowers, white ground, edged scarlet; and Peace,
pure ivory-white. They have charming flowers in true Cactus form, and will bear
more than fifty fully-expanded flowers simultaneously, the individual blooms
being- about 2—3½ inches across.
The best time to cut the flowers is early in the morning, or late in the
evening; when cut, place them immediately in water, in a cool place such as a
cellar, or a cool greenhouse.
The foliage is a most important matter, and discretion should be used in the
selection. Choose nice young growths, with a few stronger growths if support is
required for the blooms, as in arrangements in bowls or baskets. Cut them some
hours before they are wanted, and keep in water in a cool, shady place. The
foliage will then become almost perfectly rigid, and will keep fresh for at
least a week.
One of the best principles of arrangement is to keep each variety separate, or
in any case not to mix more than two colours together. A plainly coloured
receptacle is most suitable, and any fairly tall vessel answers well. A bowl or
basket filled with blooms in a variety of colours harmoniously blended and
arranged with their own or other suitable foliage, makes a most effective
display. In this form of arrangement it will be found that the flowers last much
longer than in an upright position.
Single specimens, cut with their own foliage, and arranged in large specimen
glasses, are very effective. After being placed in the glasses they should be
kept in a cool place for some hours before being brought into the room. When it
is desired to keep the flowers for some time, it is advisable to remove them
from the room to a cool place until they are required again. If it is
inconvenient to« remove the flowers, open the windows for as long a time as
possible after the gas has been turned off. This remark applies not only to
Dahlias, but to all flowers and ferns.
A very pleasing manner of displaying the flowers is to introduce a little
coloured foliage, berries, grasses, etc., and in carrying out this idea the
following notes may be of some assistance. Very dark flowers look well when
associated with yellow or light foliage, such as silver or golden acer, golden
privet, etc. Pink and light flowers may be mixed with any good purple or dark
foliage, such as the purple plum (Prunus pissardi), or purple-foliaged Berberis;
dark berries may be used with light flowers, whilst red berries intermingled
with dark foliage are very effective with bright yellow flowers, but with orange
shades use dark foliage only.
Scarlet, dark red, heliotrope, and purple flowers, require silver or dark green
foliage, and bicoloured flowers require plain greens.
For variety, light grasses may be used, and the majority of the Asparagi, more
especially that called sprengeri, are excellent and last well. Ferns, except in
the bolder varieties (such as Nephro-lepis), are not suitable for arrangement.
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At the time of publication, the following were the Cactus